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Simulation and Emulation of Quantum Computers Both emulation and simulation are important for calibrating, validating and benchmarking emerging quantum computing hardware and architectures.

Dating rocks uranium

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Some techniques place the sample in a nuclear reactor first to excite the isotopes present, then measure these isotopes using a mass spectrometer (such as in the argon-argon scheme).Others place mineral grains under a special microscope, firing a laser beam at the grains which ionises the mineral and releases the isotopes.This decay process leads to a more balanced nucleus and when the number of protons and neutrons balance, the atom becomes stable.This radioactivity can be used for dating, since a radioactive 'parent' element decays into a stable 'daughter' element at a constant rate.This technique is good for iron meteorites and the mineral molybdenite.This system is highly favoured for accurate dating of igneous and metamorphic rocks, through many different techniques.

The amount of carbon isotopes within living organisms reaches an equilibrium value, on death no more is taken up, and the 14C present starts to decay at a known rate.

This technique uses the same minerals and rocks as for K-Ar dating but restricts measurements to the argon isotopic system which is not so affected by metamorphic and alteration events. The decay of 147Sm to 143Nd for dating rocks began in the mid-1970s and was widespread by the early 1980s.

It is useful for dating very old igneous and metamorphic rocks and also meteorites and other cosmic fragments.

Radioactive decay is a natural process and comes from the atomic nucleus becoming unstable and releasing bits and pieces.

These are released as radioactive particles (there are many types).